Anju Goel, MD, MPH, is a board-certified physician who specializes in public health, communicable disease, diabetes, and health policy.

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Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the U.S. It infects almost every sexually active person at some point in their lifetime. Approximately 150 different strains of HPV have been identified. Those associated with cancer are collectively called the "high-risk" strains.

Cervical cancer is the cancer type that's most commonly associated with HPV, but research has suggested as many as 3% and 2% of all cancers in women and men, respectively, are caused by HPV.

Most people infected with HPV will never have any symptoms and will not develop cancer because of their infection, but some do. Learn more about HPV and cancer risk below.

How HPV Is Diagnosed

What a Positive Result Means

In 2018, the United States recorded almost 43 million HPV infections—many among people in their late teens and early 20s. Knowing your HPV status is critical to ensuring that you and your health provider keep proper tabs on your relative risk for cancer.

HPV infection is responsible for most, if not all, cervical cancer cases. HPV can also cause genital warts and other forms of cancer in both females and males (including anal cancer).

More than 90% of women who receive a positive diagnosis for HPV will clear the infection spontaneously and fully within the span of two years.

Does a Positive Test for HPV Mean You'll Get Cervical Cancer?

Of the remaining 10% who are HPV positive, most will eventually clear their infections. Only a small percentage of the rest will go on to develop an abnormal Pap smear result.

Some of the factors associated with HPV persistence include:

If you test positive for HPV, it does indicate a need for regular follow-ups. This is particularly true if you also have an abnormal Pap smear.

A Pap smear screens for early signs of cervical cancer, known as cervical dysplasia. Keeping up to date with your screenings ensure that any abnormal changes can be spotted and treated early, usually with a simple outpatient procedure.

In the end, a positive HPV test is no reason to panic. Your risk of getting cervical cancer could be higher than someone without an HPV infection, but the risk is still quite low.

What Should I Do If My Partner Has HPV?

About the HPV Vaccine

Gardasil 9 is the only HPV vaccine available on the market in the U.S. Completing the full vaccine series is one way to significantly reduce your risk of ever becoming infected with HPV.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends HPV vaccination for boys and girls ages 11 to 12 (and as young as 9). Vaccination is also recommended for anyone up to the age of 26 if they are not vaccinated already. Those at increased risk can get vaccinated up to the age of 45.

While the vaccine does not protect against all types of HPV, it does target nine strains, including the high-risk strains known to cause cancer. These include HPV types 16 and 18, the two strains responsible for 80% of all cervical cancer cases.

Vaccine efficacy has been shown to last for 10 years or more, particularly when the vaccine is given to younger women.

Facts About HPVWas this page helpful?Thanks for your feedback!

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